Disclaimer: This is not the recommended workflow. As a developer you should use VS.NET 2013 and build SharePoint projects. You can then use TypeScript in your solution.
What do you need:
- A windows machine, with Visual Studio .NET 2013 (TypeScript is better with VSNET 2013)
- You don't need SharePoint installed in this machine. You also don't need to have the VS.NET SharePoint extensions installed.
- You need TypeScript though, grab it from: http://www.typescriptlang.org/#Download
Change your VS.NET settings:
So now you can open TypeScript directly from File > Open
Similarly, you can create new TypeScript files in VS.NET and save it to SharePoint.
Why is this cool?
- You can use VS.NET 2013 on your client machine, and use the latest version of TypeScript regardless of what SharePoint server you are talking to. You aren't restricted by SharePoint 2010 and needing VS.NET 2010, or using VS.NET 2008 with SharePoint 2007. You don't need SharePoint installed locally and you don't need to have the SharePoint extensions installed for VS.NET 2013. As a consultant this is a life saver - I can now use TypeScript on old 2010/2007 environments.
- You get all the benefits of TypeScript, including reference paths (as long as you put the definition files in SharePoint too, in a relative location).
- When you are ready to package and deploy, take the TypeScript file out and put it into a proper SharePoint solution.